The Rolla Express
November 19, 1860

Rolla Express "Maries and Phelps Counties" November 19, 1860
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} “The true Democracy of these two counties have most nobly done their duty and squatterism has received a most signal rebuke at their hands.  Maries County has given her opinion upon the issues of this contest by the following vote: Breckenridge 309; Douglas 98; Bell 95; Lincoln 7.  A majority over Douglas!  Phelps County has done well also: Breckenridge 430; Douglas 254; Bell 199, Lincoln 37.  In Phelps County the vote of the employees on the railroad has swelled the number who have supported the claims of the Squatter Giant else he had been no-whar’!”

The article strongly supports the Southern Democratic win in Maries and Phelps County.  The line “squatterism has received a most signal rebuke” refers to the defeat of Northern Democratic candidate, Stephen Douglas in both counties.  In 1854, Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act which created tremendous political upheaval in the country.  The western territories of Kansas and Nebraska were being settled and Congress needed to provide territorial organization for the region.  At the time, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 prohibited slavery in the new territories.  The Compromise stated that all territories above the 36°30' line, except for Missouri, were prohibited from practicing the “peculiar institution.”
While Kansas and Nebraska were vying for territorial status, various proposals for the transcontinental railroad to California were being surveyed.  One route extended across the South from New Orleans while a second route cut across the Great Plains from Chicago. Southern leaders proposed a deal.  They would support the central route from Chicago if slavery was permitted in the new territories.  Douglas acquiesced and proposed a middle position on the slavery issue by creating popular sovereignty.  Residents of the territories would be able to decide by voting whether or not slavery would be allowed or denied in the territory.  This process became known as “squatter sovereignty” and instantly outraged anti-slavery forces across the North.  One unexpected result was pro and anti-slavery elements moving into Kansas with the intention to vote for or against slavery.  This led to a raging war between the two factions and the territory became known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
Stephen DouglasInitially, Southerners were satisfied with Douglas’ “squatter sovereignty” and praised him for relaxing restrictions on slavery.  However, he lost the support of his Democratic constituents in the South over two key issues.  In 1857, the United States Supreme Court issued the Dred Scott decision.  The decision declared that under the Constitution, neither Congress nor a Territorial legislature created by Congress had the power to prohibit slavery in a Territory.  This decision made the Kansas-Nebraska Act irrelevant and denied the basis of “popular sovereignty.”  If Douglas rejected the Dred Scott decision he would lose Southern support.  If he embraced it, he would lose the northern vote.  In the end, Douglas issued tepid support of the decision but continued to assert popular sovereignty.  By continuing to push the compromise, Douglas was now viewed by Southerners as creating restrictions against slavery.
The second factor during this time was the proposed admission of Kansas as a slave state by President James Buchanan.  For Kansas to be admitted as a state, a state constitution had to be submitted to Congress by the approval of a majority of residents.  President Buchanan appointed Robert J. Walker, a former Senator from Mississippi, as territorial Governor.  Walker was expected to assist the pro-slavery faction by approving their state constitution.  A majority of residents in Kansas were anti-slavery “Free Soilers.”  Due to voting fraud and improper political pressure from Buchanan, Walker opposed the pro-slavery constitution and resigned from the office.  Nevertheless, Buchanan pushed for Congressional approval of Kansas statehood under the pro-slavery constitution.  The bill passed the House but failed in the Senate where it was opposed by Stephen Douglas.  He rejected the fraudulent way the pro-slavery constitution was adopted.  His stand against Buchanan restored his character with Northerners. 
Douglas was the obvious nominee for the Democrats in the election of 1860.  However, during the Democratic convention in Charleston, the committee endorsed the Dred Scott decision and pushed for the enactment of slave codes in the Territories.  Supporters of Douglas argued that with such a platform, the Democrats would lose every Northern state.  The convention ultimately evaded the Dred Scott decision and rejected slave codes.  This move prompted delegated from seven Southern states with withdraw and create the Southern Democratic ticket supporting John C. Breckinridge. 
Fearing the country would split over the issue of slavery, Douglas sought to save the Union by speaking out against abolitionism in the North and secessionism in the South.  In Raleigh, North Carolina, he stated “I am in favor of executing in good faith every clause and provision of the Constitution and protecting every right under it and then hanging every man who takes up arms against it.”
Ultimately, Douglas only received 29% of the popular vote and only carried Missouri.  The large amount of support for Douglas came from Irish Catholics and poor farmers.

The Rolla Express
November 19, 1860

Rolla Express "Maries and Phelps Counties" November 19, 1860
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} “The true Democracy of these two counties have most nobly done their duty and squatterism has received a most signal rebuke at their hands.  Maries County has given her opinion upon the issues of this contest by the following vote: Breckenridge 309; Douglas 98; Bell 95; Lincoln 7.  A majority over Douglas!  Phelps County has done well also: Breckenridge 430; Douglas 254; Bell 199, Lincoln 37.  In Phelps County the vote of the employees on the railroad has swelled the number who have supported the claims of the Squatter Giant else he had been no-whar’!”

The article strongly supports the Southern Democratic win in Maries and Phelps County.  The line “squatterism has received a most signal rebuke” refers to the defeat of Northern Democratic candidate, Stephen Douglas in both counties.  In 1854, Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act which created tremendous political upheaval in the country.  The western territories of Kansas and Nebraska were being settled and Congress needed to provide territorial organization for the region.  At the time, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 prohibited slavery in the new territories.  The Compromise stated that all territories above the 36°30' line, except for Missouri, were prohibited from practicing the “peculiar institution.”
While Kansas and Nebraska were vying for territorial status, various proposals for the transcontinental railroad to California were being surveyed.  One route extended across the South from New Orleans while a second route cut across the Great Plains from Chicago. Southern leaders proposed a deal.  They would support the central route from Chicago if slavery was permitted in the new territories.  Douglas acquiesced and proposed a middle position on the slavery issue by creating popular sovereignty.  Residents of the territories would be able to decide by voting whether or not slavery would be allowed or denied in the territory.  This process became known as “squatter sovereignty” and instantly outraged anti-slavery forces across the North.  One unexpected result was pro and anti-slavery elements moving into Kansas with the intention to vote for or against slavery.  This led to a raging war between the two factions and the territory became known as “Bleeding Kansas.”
Stephen DouglasInitially, Southerners were satisfied with Douglas’ “squatter sovereignty” and praised him for relaxing restrictions on slavery.  However, he lost the support of his Democratic constituents in the South over two key issues.  In 1857, the United States Supreme Court issued the Dred Scott decision.  The decision declared that under the Constitution, neither Congress nor a Territorial legislature created by Congress had the power to prohibit slavery in a Territory.  This decision made the Kansas-Nebraska Act irrelevant and denied the basis of “popular sovereignty.”  If Douglas rejected the Dred Scott decision he would lose Southern support.  If he embraced it, he would lose the northern vote.  In the end, Douglas issued tepid support of the decision but continued to assert popular sovereignty.  By continuing to push the compromise, Douglas was now viewed by Southerners as creating restrictions against slavery.
The second factor during this time was the proposed admission of Kansas as a slave state by President James Buchanan.  For Kansas to be admitted as a state, a state constitution had to be submitted to Congress by the approval of a majority of residents.  President Buchanan appointed Robert J. Walker, a former Senator from Mississippi, as territorial Governor.  Walker was expected to assist the pro-slavery faction by approving their state constitution.  A majority of residents in Kansas were anti-slavery “Free Soilers.”  Due to voting fraud and improper political pressure from Buchanan, Walker opposed the pro-slavery constitution and resigned from the office.  Nevertheless, Buchanan pushed for Congressional approval of Kansas statehood under the pro-slavery constitution.  The bill passed the House but failed in the Senate where it was opposed by Stephen Douglas.  He rejected the fraudulent way the pro-slavery constitution was adopted.  His stand against Buchanan restored his character with Northerners. 
Douglas was the obvious nominee for the Democrats in the election of 1860.  However, during the Democratic convention in Charleston, the committee endorsed the Dred Scott decision and pushed for the enactment of slave codes in the Territories.  Supporters of Douglas argued that with such a platform, the Democrats would lose every Northern state.  The convention ultimately evaded the Dred Scott decision and rejected slave codes.  This move prompted delegated from seven Southern states with withdraw and create the Southern Democratic ticket supporting John C. Breckinridge. 
Fearing the country would split over the issue of slavery, Douglas sought to save the Union by speaking out against abolitionism in the North and secessionism in the South.  In Raleigh, North Carolina, he stated “I am in favor of executing in good faith every clause and provision of the Constitution and protecting every right under it and then hanging every man who takes up arms against it.”
Ultimately, Douglas only received 29% of the popular vote and only carried Missouri.  The large amount of support for Douglas came from Irish Catholics and poor farmers.